The use of dietary supplements in geriatrics
Due to the decrease in mortality in developed countries over the past three decades, the number of elderly people has increased by about 1/3. The most common at the age of 65-80 years are cardiovascular and oncological diseases. At the age of over 80, degenerative disorders come to the fore: dementia, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis. With increasing age, structural and functional changes in all organs and systems of the body increase, which should be taken into account when prescribing drugs. First of all, senile changes in the central nervous system begin to occur: a decrease in the number of nerve cells, a decrease in cerebral blood flow, a decrease in the content of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. These disorders are combined with a decrease in memory, a slowdown in the speed of reactions, and a decrease in the tolerance of normal loads. To correct these disorders, it is very important to use drugs that do not reduce brain beds, these are Ginkgo Biloba and Glutamine with a longer course of treatment. The involution of the cardiovascular system is manifested by a decrease in the stroke volume of cardiac output and a slowing of the heart rate. These disorders are based on the deposition of lipofuscin and amyloid in the walls of the arteries of the heart. The mass of the heart increases and the number of capillaries decreases relatively. Vascular resistance increases, the work of the heart is difficult, which can lead to the appearance of symptoms of heart failure. With age, blood pressure rises, but the pressure is above 160/90 mm Hg. considered hypertension. Treatment of elderly patients with hypertension, angina pectoris and circulatory failure is carried out taking into account the increase in the free fractions of drugs (due to a decrease in the content of albumins, which many drugs bind to when entering the bloodstream), which creates prerequisites for enhancing the effect of the drug. Therefore, the doses of prescribed dietary supplements should be reduced in proportion to the increase in age. So, «Cardiohelp» is used to reduce blood pressure and regulate the heart rhythm in 1/2 of the dose taken, 1 pack. «Coenzyme Q10» and «L-Carnitine» is also used in the minimum daily dose, but the course of treatment remains long — 6 weeks. It is known that tissue damage in older people is more pronounced and occurs under the influence of accumulating free radicals and decay products, therefore antioxidants are indicated, however, the dose / effect also takes into account reduced liver enzymatic activity, a decrease in the rate of drug metabolism, as well as changes in receptor sensitivity. «ORS 95+ (Pycnogenol)», «Long Life», «Selenium» should be used, however, only 3 times a week, 1 pack x 2-3 times a year. Immunity in older people changes in such a way that cell damage is of an autoimmune nature, so the immunocorrectors «Cat’s Claw» and «Pau de Arco» are not very effective. It is recommended to take adaptogens, for example, the drug «Stress Out» for a course of treatment 1 bottle, but in a reduced dose: 20 drops x 2 times a week (with moderately elevated blood pressure). Osteoporosis is prevented and treated with drugs «KoKaMiD», «Super S of prolonged action» and «Prolin» for a long time in half the dose. Deforming arthritis in the elderly, people with excess weight is treated according to the same scheme as in section 5, but the doses of dietary supplements are halved. In general, in elderly patients, it is advisable to start any VAD at a very low dose. Due to the presence of several diseases, it is often necessary to use several drugs. It is better that they are of multidirectional action and no more than three.