The use of dietary supplements in diabetes


The applied aspect of nutrition in endocrine pathology includes, firstly, the optimal and controlled replenishment of the deficiency of nutrients and biologically active substances of food components necessary for tissue structures, hormones and enzyme systems (metabolic and replacement levels of exposure). Secondly, a mild pharmacological correction of disorders in the body associated with a change in the function of the endocrine gland (symptomatic level of exposure). The clinical symptom complex of diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by absolute or relative insulin deficiency. As a result, there is a violation of the absorption of food components, primarily glucose. The use of dietary supplements and herbal medicine in diabetes is aimed at stimulating the body to maintain an optimal level of glucose in the blood, stimulating the secretory apparatus of the pancreas, improving metabolic processes in its tissues and secretory cells, and increasing the sensitivity of tissue receptors to glucose. To sweeten food, instead of traditional sweeteners, it is recommended to use natural sweeteners — herbal remedies that have a multidirectional effect on the body. For example, a plant called «honey» grass or stevia. Due to the content of sweet glycosides — steviosides, the plant is almost 500 times sweeter than sugar. The effectiveness of this plant lies in the fact that with regular use of stevioside, the level of glucose and cholesterol in the body decreases, the rheological properties of blood, the functions of the liver and pancreas improve. A beneficial effect on glucose levels is provided by dietary supplements containing vegetable fibers, which, moving slowly in the gastrointestinal tract, create a feeling of satiety and not only absorb excess glucose, but also make it difficult to split glucose molecules from polysaccharides, which reduces the need for insulin. In addition, enterosorbents based on plant fibers in DM carry out detoxification of the body. They remove products of underoxidized fats (ketone bodies) and protein breakdown (nitrogenous substances), which prevents lactic acidosis. Zinc, which is part of the structure of antioxidant defense enzymes, deserves special attention in DM. It favorably affects the function of the pancreas, promotes the synthesis of insulin. Currently, there are more than 100 plants with a hypoglycemic effect: blueberry leaves, berries and strawberry leaves, bean pods, bay leaves, nettle leaves, etc. The hypoglycemic activity of onion, garlic, ginseng roots, eleutherococcus, fenugreek, bitter melon, etc. .d. Among the «exotic» plants on this list are: Gymnema Silvestre, Garcinia Cambodia. Extracts of these plants reduce the body’s need for glucose and inhibit its adsorption in the gastrointestinal tract, have an anarexogenic effect. Recent studies have shown that gynemic acid, the active ingredient in Gymnema Silvestre, supports insulin production by stimulating β-cell regeneration, i.e. contributes to the restoration of the secretory apparatus of the pancreas. In recent years, interesting results have been obtained using Lucerne. This plant has a wide range of therapeutic activity: promotes wound healing, which is important in diabetes, has antibacterial and immunomodulatory effects. Plant alkaloids reduce sugar levels, fibers and saponins have sorbent properties. In order to prevent the occurrence and treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy and angiopathy, leading to trophic disorders of internal organs and limbs, it is necessary to use sources of angioprotectors: extracts of ginkgo biloba leaves, gotu kola, grape seeds. It is important to use antioxidants: for example, proanthocyanidins, vitamin E (nanocluster forms that provide more complete absorption and optimal effect), prolonged forms of vitamin C. Some components of dietary supplements and their mechanism of action in diabetes are presented in the table. It should be noted that the effectiveness of the action of dietary supplements for food depends not only on the reasonableness of their choice, but also on the correct use, ideally, taking into account the daily, seasonal rhythms of the body, or at least the phases of food intake. For example, a dietary supplement with an anorexigenic action is consumed 30-40 minutes before meals. Dietary supplements containing fiber to reduce the absorption of glucose are taken with food. If it is necessary to carry out detoxification, food enterosorbent can be used at any time, and in the case of a preventive focus — 1-1.5 hours before meals. The intake of dietary supplements containing various types of fibers as the main ingredient composition should not be simultaneous with the intake of medicines due to a decrease in the effectiveness of the latter. Amino acid complexes, due to competition with food amino acids, should be administered 30-40 minutes before. before meals, and vitamin-mineral complexes are better absorbed with food containing moderate amounts of proteins and fats. A correct and scientific approach to the selection and use of phytotherapy and dietary supplements in endocrine pathology allows you to influence the etiopathogenetic levels of the disease, which, in combination with pharmacological agents, allows you to achieve a more significant therapeutic effect.


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