Propolis is a resinous fragrant natural substance. Sometimes it is called glue, bond, balm, resin. It has a bitter, spicy-cooling taste, sticky to the touch. And its source is the resinous substances of various plants collected by bees from the buds, young branches and leaves of poplar, birch and willow, aspen, pine, chestnut, alder and other plants and herbs. Its name comes from the Greek «propolis», meaning «to close up, to cover up, to glue.» The bees cover up cracks, smooth out irregularities in the hive, use it to fasten vertical combs to the base of the ceiling plank and to protect from cold or heat. Propolis is an effective means of protection against diseases, it protects the bee family living in a large crowd from viruses, fungi, bacteria, helps to maintain a constant healthy microclimate in the hive, and protects its inner walls from destruction. The chemical composition of propolis is quite complex and depends on the plants from which it was collected and the bee enzymes with which it was processed. Propolis is a complex compound. The bulk of propolis is produced as a product during the digestion of pollen. Its density is 1.112 — 1.118. The more wax in propolis, the lower its specific gravity. In water, propolis dissolves slightly 1-3%. It dissolves well in alcohol, ether, acetic acid, etc. It consists of resinous substances 50-55%, essential oils 8-10%, wax about 30%, pollen and mechanical impurities — 5%. Propolis has no chemical formula. Vitamins found in propolis: thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, tocopheracetate, ascorbic acid, provitamin A, a large number of trace elements. Propolis has: 1. Antimicrobial action — spore-like microorganisms, anthrax pathogens, mycoid bacillus. 2. bactericidal effect on protozoa: Trichomonas, fungi, diphtheria bacillus, pale treponema. 3. viral activity — influenza virus, foot and mouth disease. 4. propolis enhances and prolongs the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics, inhibits the emergence of antibiotic-resistant forms. Pharmacological properties: 1. Propolis stimulates non-specific and specific factors of immunity, increases the protective and adaptive capabilities of the body. Promotes the appearance of an intense plasmacytic reaction, stimulates the formation of antibodies, increases the complement titer, increases the accumulation of nitotoxin in the blood. 2. Propolis cleanses cell membranes, removes cholesterol, normalizes cell respiration, suppresses pathological cells. Indications: 1. gastroenterology: chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, cholelithiasis, chronic hepatitis, cholecystitis, acute and chronic entritis, colitis. 2. diseases of the nervous system: neurosis, neuralgia, encephalitis of various etiologies, osteomyelitis, sciatica, plexitis. 3. cardiology: hypertension, angina pectoris. 4. dermatology: hair loss, baldness, eczema, warts, nirodermatitis, pyoderma, furunculosis, psoriasis, trichophytosis. 5. dentistry: diseases of the teeth, gums, diseases of the oral mucosa. 6. Nephrology: diseases of the urinary tract, kidneys. 7. gynecology: mastitis, cervical erosion, bacterial colpitis, vulvovaginitis, vaginitis, colpitis. 8. andrology: chronic diseases of the seminal vesicles of the prostate gland, prostate adenoma. 9. endocrypology: hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. 10. photolmology: keratitis, cataracts, eye injuries, eye burns, corneal ulcer, conjunctivitis. 11. infectious diseases: colds, flu, viral infections. 12. oncology: benign and malignant tumors.


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